1552. As a result of the campaign by Ivan the Terrible against the Khanate of Kazan, the latter was terminated and its territory, including the lands of Penza region, was added to the Moscow State.
In XVI-XVII centuries defensive lines were built. In mid XVII century Penza abatises were constructed. Around them the following towns were founded: Kerensk (1636), Verhny Lomov (1636), Nizhny Lomov (1636), Atemar (1639), Saransk (1641), Insar (1647), Penza (1663), Mokshan (1679), Ramzay stockade town (1679). In 1681 the Penza line was extended to the East.
Construction of watch lines and fortresses initiated colonization of Penza region, i.e. its settlement and development.
The 3rd of May 1663. The first documentary mentioning of the fortress of Penza.
1666. Around 3000 people resided in Penza. Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich (according to legend) granted the icon of Our Lady of Kazan to city dwellers. From those far-off days the icon is kept in the Mitrophanovskaya church of Penza.
The 12th of November 1680. According to the ordinance by Tsar Fedor Alexeevich Penza was passed under control of Kazan.