Resulting from the February Revolution of 1917, in Penza there were established councils of workers’, soldiers’ and officers’ deputies, later on – peasants’ deputies.
From the 21st of February 1917 till mid-March the Soviet rule was being established in all districts of Penza region. The new power effected political and economic interests of landowners, bourgeoisie, the middle class resulting in a confrontation between the victors and the vanquished, which developed into an armed struggle. The beginning of the civil war in the territory of Penza region was precipitated by an armed march of Czechoslovakian corps provoked by the local authorities.
In April 1917 a uniform council was established in Penza province simultaneously with a temporary Penza provincial executive committee.
On the 12th of November 1917 the province held elections to the Constituent Assembly of Russia. Most votes were for socialist revolutionaries, Bolsheviks had only 15%. 11 deputies were elected from Penza province, mostly socialist revolutionaries. On the 5th of May the first session of the Constituent Assembly in Petrograd was driven away by Bolsheviks.
On the 21st of December (3rd of January) 1918 the Soviet power was proclaimed in Penza, and by April 1918 it was established throughout the whole province.
As the civil war was over Penza region returned to peaceful life.
On the 14th of May 1928 Penza province was included into Middle-Volga region; in July 1928 the territory of former Penza province was divided between four districts – Kuznetsk, Mordovia, Penza and Syzran.
From 1926 to 1940 the following factories were functioning in Penza: knitting and clothing factories, reconstructed furniture and biscuit-making plants, bicycle and watchmaking factories, a paper mill, a number of engineering factories, “Schetmash” factory, “Vozrozhdenie” factory in Kuznetsk, a shoe-making factory, a sheepskin and fur complex.
In the years of administrative reforms the region was subject to new industrial construction. The former pipe plant mastered production of bicycles, turning lathes and sparkling plugs for cars. Serdobsk mechanical engineering plant and “Mayak revolutsii” paper mill were reconstructed. In 1935 the bicycle factory began arranging a watch-making shop, and two years after that the trading network was supplied with first 5 thousand pieces of watches for women.
In 1935 Kuznetsk shoe-making factory was put into operation.
In 1937 “Mayak revolutsii” paper mill started producing fine chart paper for “World Atlas” publication.
In 1938 Penza region counted 500 running enterprises, including 190 of national importance.
The population of Penza district totaled 1163,6 thousand people, Kuznetsk district – 562,7.
In September 1937 Penza and a number of rural districts were affixed to Tambov region, which was later divided into Tambov and Penza regions by the ordinance of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council from the 4th of February 1939. The population of the newly established region was 1709,5 thousand people, out of which 83,3% resided in rural areas.
In 1938 Penza region embraced 5591 enterprises with 380 large-scale ones.
The agriculture was going through mass collectivization based on termination of sole peasant farms. On the 1st of March 1930 in Penza district 40,6% of peasant farms were accumulated in collective farms (kolkhoz), in Kuznetsk district – 52%. Collectivization was accompanied with dispossession of kulaks (up to 15% of farms). From 1929 tractor machinery stations (TMS) were being organized for technical servicing of new collective farms. Mokshan TMS was the first one in Penza region established on the 20th of December 1929. Its vehicle fleet consisted of 16 tractors.
By 1940 the region had 98 TMSs with 9937 tractors and 2697 grain harvester combines. By the end of the second five-year plan (1937) 88% of peasant farms were drawn into collective farms.