In the post-war period, the Penza region began to develop into an industrial region of Russia. At the evacuated enterprises civilian products were manufactured, e.g. textile machines, agricultural machinery. New plants came into operation. The plant of computing and electronic machines “VEM”, diesel and compressor plants, plant of heavy industrial valves “Tyazhpromarmatura”, plant of chemical machine building “Penzhimmash”, pharmaceutical plant, piano factory, construction integrated plants, Serdobsk machine building plant, instrument engineering plant (Zarechny town) and plants in Kuznetsk started production in the 1940s – 1950s. The defence industry was developing. The production of watches, bicycles, light industry products continued.
In 1948 the transfer of industry to the new production types was completed, and machine building and instrument engineering were recognised as the priorities.
The Production association Era manufactured aerospace simulators for Buran spacecraft. The Research Institute of Physical Measurements was developing instruments for spacecrafts.
In the 1960s – 1980s the major asphalt roads were built in the region. They connected the regional centre with the districts, where the road construction also developed.
In the 1950s – 1970s agriculture, its facilities and resources changed significantly. In 1954 – 1955 alone the region and its economy received 3066 tractors, 1854 motor vehicles, and 1250 harvesters.
Traditionally, agriculture was based on the production of grain, sugar beet, meat and dairy cattle. 100 specialised farms were created, which manufactured 60% of pork, 76% of eggs of the whole region production in the 1960s – 1970s. Pedigree cattle were bred.
In 1961 – 1978 Lev Yermin, the first secretary to the regional committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, made a great contribution to the development of economy in the region. In 1967 the Penza Region was awarded the Order of Lenin.
In April 1993, national elections of the Penza Region head were held for the first time in the history of the region. Having received 71.4% of the votes, Anatoly Kovlyagin was elected as the head of the region.
In April 1998, 60% of voters had the confidence in Vasily Bochkarev. The region gained new symbols: the flag, the new coat of arms of the Penza Region, the anthem of the Penza Region.
Since 1999, the region has joined the programmes of 100 Best Goods of Russia. These are the enterprises Penza Production Association “Elektropribor” (“Electrical Equipment”), “Radiozavod” (“Radio Plant”), Closed Joint Stock Company “Penza Confectionery Factory”, Open Joint Stock Company “Penza Bread Factory No. 2”, Closed Joint Stock Company “Penzmash”, “Stary pivovar” (“Old Brewer”), etc.
In 2005, 360 schools were connected to the Internet.
Penza institutes gained the status of universities and academies. The branches of capital for-profit universities with a distance learning system were opened.
In the Penza region, higher education is provided by: Penza State University, Penza State Agricultural Academy, Penza State Technological University, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction, Penza Cossack Institute of Technology (branch of K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technology and Management), Penza College of Railway Transport (branch of Samara State University of Railway Transport), Penza branch of the Russian State University of Innovative Technology and Entrepreneurship, Penza branch of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation.